Nepal Accounting Standard 2 (NAS 2) is a financial reporting standard issued by the Nepal Accounting Standards Board (NASB) that deals with inventories. Inventories are assets held for sale in the ordinary course of business, in the process of production for such sale, or in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in rendering of services.
1. Objective: The objective of NAS 2 is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories, ensuring that they are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value (NRV), and to provide guidance on the cost formulas that are used to assign costs to inventories.
2. Scope: NAS 2 applies to all inventories except for work in progress arising under construction contracts, financial instruments, biological assets related to agricultural activity, and assets held for sale in the ordinary course of business.
3. Measurement: Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost includes all costs of purchase, costs of conversion, and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
4. Cost Formulas: NAS 2 provides guidance on the cost formulas that can be used to assign costs to inventories, including:
- Specific Identification Method
- First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Method
- Weighted Average Cost MethodS
- Specific Identification Method: Under this method, each individual item of inventory is identified and its cost is tracked separately. This method is often used for high-value or unique items where it's practical to individually identify and track costs.
- First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Method: FIFO assumes that the first items purchased or produced are the first ones sold. This means that the cost of the oldest inventory is assigned to the cost of goods sold (COGS), while the cost of the most recent purchases is assigned to ending inventory. FIFO can be useful in industries where there are significant fluctuations in costs over time.
- Weighted Average Cost Method: Under this method, the cost of inventory is calculated by taking the weighted average cost of all units available for sale during the accounting period. This method is relatively simple and is often used in industries where inventory items are interchangeable and have similar costs.
5. Cost of Inventories: The cost of inventories should comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion, and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of purchase include purchase price, import duties, and other taxes. Costs of conversion include direct labor and a systematic allocation of fixed and variable production overheads.
6. Net Realizable Value: Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Determining the net realizable value of inventory requires careful consideration of both the estimated selling price and the costs necessary to complete the sale. This may include factors such as transportation costs, marketing expenses, and any additional processing or finishing required before the inventory can be sold.
It's important for companies to regularly assess the net realizable value of their inventory and recognize any write-downs necessary to reflect declines in value. Failure to properly account for declines in inventory value can result in overstatement of assets and understatement of expenses, leading to misleading financial statements.
7. Recognition of Write-downs: If the net realizable value of inventories is lower than their cost, NAS 2 requires the recognition of a write-down as an expense in the period in which the write-down occurs.
8. Disclosure: Entities are required to disclose the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories, including the cost formula used. Additionally, disclosures should include the carrying amount of inventories, the amount of any write-down, and the amount of any reversal of a write-down recognized as an expense in the period. These
Disclosures typically include:
- A summary of the accounting policies adopted for inventory valuation, including the cost formula used.
- The carrying amount of inventory, broken down by major categories if necessary.
- Any write-downs recognized as expenses during the reporting period, along with the reasons for the write-down.
- Any reversals of previous write-downs, indicating the amount and nature of the reversal.
By providing this information, companies can enhance transparency and help users understand the financial implications of their inventory management practices.
NAS 2 provides guidance on the measurement and disclosure of inventories, ensuring that they are appropriately accounted for in financial statements. By requiring inventories to be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value, NAS 2 aims to provide users of financial statements with reliable information about an entity's inventory holdings and their potential realization value. Compliance with NAS 2 helps to enhance transparency and comparability in financial reporting, contributing to the overall reliability of financial statements in Nepal.
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